Student guest post: How tone can make or break an email newsletter

Students in JOMC 457, Advanced Editing, are writing guests posts for this blog this semester. This is the 14th (and last) of those posts. Martha Upton is a senior at UNC-Chapel Hill majoring in journalism and history. She is from Wake Forest and has called North Carolina home her whole life. Martha hopes to land a job editing and designing in the magazine industry next year and vows to return to Florence, Italy, in the near future where she spent a summer abroad.

After spending years feeling obligated yet reluctant to try to make it through more than one whole story in a print newspaper, I have been delighted recently by the email I find in my inbox promptly every weekday morning from a daily newsletter called theSkimm.

Without warning, news roundups and daily or weekly newsletters have become instilled in the rhetoric of the journalism world. You can even get your New York Times delivered as an email right to your inbox every morning. Lately it has become all about readability. How fast can I read this information and get the gist without having to take too much time out of my busy life? They don’t call it theSkimm for nothing.

With all the debriefing, I have to wonder if some of the value gets lost in translation. TheSkimm prides itself on its witty, and some might say sassy, approach to current events. There are pop culture references thrown in, which I especially enjoy, but is it OK to use the same style of writing when it comes to stabilizing Yemen’s government?

As an editor, I have become well versed in the concept of alternative story forms. I see the merit of using numbers to tell a story or making lists, either ordered or not. I was particularly enthused after finding a link to a guide theSkimm had put together differentiating the various terror groups that have been in headlines recently, something most people would be eager to learn. I quickly forwarded the guide to my mother before reading it myself because I knew she would be interested.

What I wasn’t sure of was whether my mom would understand what it meant for ISIS to be the P. Diddy of terror groups. Was my mom expected to search P. Diddy on the Internet to find out what meaning she should gather from that? (I Googled P. Diddy for you if you’re curious.)

As an editor, I understand that many publications, and now newsletters, have prided themselves on keeping a certain tone consistent throughout. However, I think editors should consider whether they want to limit their audience by making references only 20-somethings would understand.

Alternative story forms should be clear and concise, presenting the information in a way the reader can understand quickly. Not only is the topic of terror groups not exactly something that should be made light of, but also some readers may be turned away by the flippant tone used in addressing the topic.

My suggestion to fellow editors is if they want their newsletter to be the P. Diddy of newsletters (see link above), then consideration should be given to how tone can apply to different topics. In theSkimm’s case, it might have been more appropriate to take on their usual snarky attitude in the quick hit about ISIS’ latest terror, but be more straightforward in the guide. When effective communication is the goal, all the reader should have to do is skim.

Student guest post: “Breaking news” is broken

Students in JOMC 457, Advanced Editing, are writing guests posts for this blog this semester. This is the 10th of those posts. Mark Lihn is a senior journalism and political science major from Arlington, Virginia. He will begin pursuing a master’s degree in international relations next fall. 

In today’s media world, people get their news from a wide variety of sources, from television to the Internet to newspapers. While the print industry is struggling, it was never the ideal method of distribution for breaking news. However, the Internet and social media are perfectly equipped to spread the newest news, keeping people updated on their tablets, computers and smartphones.

But how long can breaking news be considered “breaking”?

The rise of the 24-hour news cycle in cable television and the Internet has had its advantages. News is more accessible across the country than ever before. If I want to know what is going on in the world, I simply have to check an application on my phone or turn on my computer or television. We generally learn breaking news long before I have to turn on a television or computer though.

The first time I hear a big news story tends to be through word of mouth or my smartphone. I either see the news on Twitter or my CNN app first, or I hear about it from a friend who learned about it a similar way. In today’s modern society, it seems safe to assume that most people who would turn to the Internet for their news get their breaking news this way.

The amount of time a story remains “breaking” is open to interpretation. It certainly seems safe to assume though that a story I have heard about three or four times already is no longer breaking news to me.

Why then do websites like CNN.com insist on having a breaking news story front and center 24/7? If a story broke in the morning, then in the afternoon, it is no longer “breaking.”

Such is the case with most of the major stories that CNN covers, like the recent tragedy of the plane crash in France. The crash of the plane was a breaking news story. However, the first story that the plane crashed keeps its timeliness far longer than any update to that story. The update that the co-pilot of the Germanwings plane was medically unfit to work broke this morning. At 4 p.m., the same update to a story that began three days ago is still labeled “breaking.”

The infatuation with breaking news on Internet news sites leads to the devaluation of breaking news. I have become immune to the monstrously large headlines and pictures of the lead pack on CNN’s site. They are always there, no matter what is going on the world, there seems to be a breaking news story.

News happens all of the time, which is why it is news. Simply because a story is new, though, does not make it a breaking news story.

Editors need to be more aware that they can wear out their audiences by overusing the categorization of breaking news. Breaking news stories can garner clicks, leading indirectly to increased revenue, but if editors are not careful, their audiences will become immune to their stories and their sites. It is something I have encountered with CNN, and it has led me to look for other news sources.

Student guest post: A farewell to the homepage

Students in JOMC 457, Advanced Editing, are writing guests posts for this blog this semester. This is the ninth of those posts. Paige Ladisic is a junior studying editing and graphic design and political science at UNC-Chapel Hill. But most of the time, she’s the online editor at The Daily Tar Heel, studying how to manage a print-first college newspaper in a digital-first world.

Every day, between 25,000 and 30,000 people view dailytarheel.com, clicking on links from Facebook, Twitter and the homepage. But every day when I open our Google Analytics panel, I’m noticing a trend — it’s just a little change for us, but at newspapers all over the country, it’s happening a lot faster and with far bigger numbers.

The modern homepage is dying.

That doesn’t mean people aren’t reading news, although seeing that The New York Times lost 80 million homepage visitors over two years is a scary statistic. That just means that people are getting to news in different ways.

Instead of treating a homepage like a digital copy of a newspaper, readers find news through social media referrals, Google searches and something analytics sites call “dark social.” Instead of readers reading the news online at certain times throughout the day, people are grabbing bits of information here and there.

At The Daily Tar Heel, our homepage’s death is coming more slowly than 80 million pageviews lost, but I’ve been watching the decline and getting ready for it.

What’s a student journalist to do?

My job every day is to make sure our website is produced with the reader and their experience in mind. I also oversee everything pushed to Facebook, Twitter and other social media channels.

Before, the goal of producing a website would just be to drive people to your homepage — but now, every social media post I write is a pitch to read that one story, to share it or to send it to your friends. People aren’t seeking out our news, because hundreds of articles are competing for every UNC student’s attention at any given time — we have to jump in the fray too.

When I open a story in our content management system, the first thing I do is write a headline — but instead of one headline, I’ll write two or three.

One is the normal newsy headline that will also be featured in the URL, one is a feature headline for the story page itself and the final headline is exclusively for social media sharing. I take advantage of that third headline to drive people from Facebook to the website, and the feature headline is important to keep people on the site once they click.

In the body text of the story, I link to everything I can — older stories with important context, profiles about key players in a story, topic pages and archives of related stories. And when it’s time to write the social media post, it’s more than just using all 140 characters — I have to take advantage of every single character to convince readers to click that link.

It’s all about getting people to the site, and once they get there, keeping them there.

RIP, homepage.

Q&A with Mebane Rash of EducationNC

Mebane Rash is CEO of EducationNC and editor of its website, which launched this week. In this interview, conducted by email, she discusses the project’s objectives.

Q. What is EducationNC? What are you hoping to achieve with this site?

A. EdNC is a nonpartisan online platform, providing data, research, news, information and analysis about the major trends, issues and challenges facing our schools. EdNC intends to surface ideas, success stories and statistics that will inspire us all to reconsider our assumptions about education.

EdNC intends to host a bipartisan conversation fueled with good information. We seek a statewide audience, including farmers and foundation staffs, leaders of religious organizations and political parties. We want EdNC to be read by public officials, parents and policymakers, as well as by teachers and school administrators.

Q. Describe your role with the site. How were you involved with its development, and now that it’s up and running, what is your typical workweek like?

A. I am the CEO and editor-in-chief, but I didn’t know very much about EdNC until July. I started in September, and I think we have had more than 150 meetings since then across the state.

I wanted to make sure we were building a website that people would actually use. I met with teachers, principals, students, administrators and parents. I talked to policymakers, the media and advocates.

Talking to people was my way of making sure EdNC was grounded in the lived experience of educators statewide. What we can promise is that we will monitor and adjust the content of the site based on user experience.

The only thing that is a sure thing about my day is that I get up about 5 a.m. so that I can post our news aggregation by 8 a.m. We only have three full-time staff so we all do whatever it takes to have a website with fresh content each day designed to maximize the user experience.

Q. EducationNC promises a mix of news and opinion. How will you balance that, particularly as a nonprofit organization that receives support from grants and donations?

A. I think our users will get use to our mix of content. We want to have something for everybody.

We have columns each day of the week. We have features — sometimes they will be research-based, other times they will be contributed by an education stakeholder. We have straight news. Sometimes we will have articles that express a point of view because we want the state to know the range of opinions that are influencing policy. We have maps that give people the opportunity to visualize data and interact with it. You can upload your ed events to our site. We have a crowdsourced EdLibrary with important resources. We will be live-streaming events – like the Triangle Startup Weekend on Education in February. Users can pick and choose what interests them.

I have editorial and content control. Our full-time staff are required to be unaffiliated voters – but they also need to be living nonpartisan lives personally and professionally. EdNC discloses when an article includes information about a board member or a financial contributor. Our funders know they can’t influence our content.

Q. North Carolina is a competitive place for news. How do you anticipate EducationNC will fit in with the likes of WRAL and The Charlotte Observer?

A. We know that for EdNC to be a success we need to have good relationships with legacy media.

We hope to provide an EdWire to the urban newspapers. We hope to provide explanatory journalism to rural newspapers. We try to package articles with all the assets a media outlet would need to run a story – photos, graphics, art, etc.

Each morning, our news aggregation drives traffic to national, state and local news stories. Our focus on education allows us to dive deep on this issue — an issue we happen to think is the most important issue facing North Carolina.

For more about EducationNC, visit the website, watch this video and follow the project on Twitter.

Q&A with Tracy Boyer Clark of Reportory

Tracy Boyer Clark is founder and CEO of Repotory, an online service that allows readers to create a daily newspaper based on their interests. She is also a senior marketing manager at IBM. Clark started her journalism career as a multimedia producer at The Roanoke Times in Virginia. In this interview, conducted by email, Clark talks about the origins for Reportory and how the service works.

Q. What is Reportory, and how did you come up with the idea for it?

A. Reportory is an à la carte news customization platform that allows readers to create a daily customized news digest based on what news sources they read, which sections they enjoy and any key terms they want to be sure not to miss.

The word “Reportory” is a mixture of “report” and “story” as we see our product being exactly that — a report of multiple news stories. It is also a play on words to repertoire, a collection of things.

I came up with the idea in 2008 while working at The Roanoke Times. I went on a delivery ride one morning and thought about how this model couldn’t exist much longer but that the personal touch of hand-delivering your news was something that readers valued.

Then, at an earnings meeting when I learned that people and paper were the two most expensive components of running the newspaper, I started to think about ways to remove the printed paper and reduce the people involved while still delivering the news in a packaged way — but with a new twist to use technology to customize the news for every person since readers only like certain sections. So now I still “deliver” customized news to readers, just into their inbox, not their doorstep.

Q. The site delivers the news primarily as a PDF. Why did you go with that format?

A. Glad you asked! When I started working on this business, I recognized the plethora of news aggregation apps out there already (Flipboard, News360, News Republic, Circa, Yahoo News Digest, etc).

However, those are just available on mobile with no other reading format. This works great for Gen Y, but I wanted to focus on the two generations before them who have been loyal print readers and are used to that personal news delivery. Not all of them use smartphones or are as comfortable with mobile technology as the younger demographic. So as they cancel their news subscriptions due to rising costs or other frustration, I wanted Reportory to fill this news void for them.

That all being said, even though the PDF digest is the “personalized newspaper” we were first and foremost working on, readers also receive a daily link to read their articles online in their own customized news portal. In early 2015, we will be releasing our iOS apps for phones and tablets where readers can access their articles on the go.

Q. The big question for any startup is how you plan to make money. What about that aspect of Reportory?

A. One of the main differences with Reportory and any other news aggregation site is that we do not use free RSS feeds to link readers back-n-forth across the web. Instead, we license 100 percent of the content in order to use the entirety of the articles to create this new product.

However, since our platform is totally customized in terms of the news it delivers to each reader, we do not pay editors or other journalists to hand-pick what the top news should be. Thus, at this point content licensing and technology development are our two largest costs.

All Reportory readers can receive 10 news articles a day for free, and we will be implementing some customized advertising to offset this cost. Then, for serious readers who want more content, we have a tiered pricing model where they can pay $4.99/month for 20 articles daily or $9.99/month for 30 articles daily.

We have plans to provide paying users with additional benefits such as a list of stock market data in their digest if they select business as a preferred topical section or a list of sports scores if they select sports. Our goal essentially is to recreate the newspaper from the ground up for these readers but only with the content they want.

Q. You’ve seen many twists and turns in your career in journalism and communications. What advice do you have for today’s students who want to go into the field?

A. I have indeed!

I dabbled in traditional newspapers right after college, then went back to graduate school during the economic crisis to receive an MSIS because I am fascinated with technology and an MBA as I love all aspects of business and marketing. During grad school, I interned at a startup and at Lenovo before finally landing at IBM and now working on my own startup. So I have truly stretched and explored a good deal over the past 10 years!

My biggest advice for students today is to experiment and explore as much as they possibly can. They should realize that their first job out of college is likely not their 20+ year spot as it may have been for their parents. Instead, they should push themselves to try a role that they might not have initially targeted or a company that wasn’t initially on their radar.

Each of my internships and jobs has taught me so much about myself — what inspires me, challenges me, bores me, etc. That self-awareness is so important to determining one’s career path … and one I am still learning as I continue to stretch and explore!

I love the saying, “Only those who risk going too far can possibly find out how far they can go” by T.S. Eliot. That is my biggest takeaway for people in their 20s: to heed this advice and take those risks in the early part of their career and never live their lives with “what ifs.”

Q&A with Ben Swanson, associate editor at DenverBroncos.com

Ben Swanson is associate editor at DenverBroncos.com, the official site of that NFL team. A 2013 graduate of the journalism school at UNC-Chapel Hill, he previously covered the Charlotte Bobcats basketball team. In this interview, conducted by email, Swanson talks about his work with the Broncos, how he got into sports journalism and how the two teams will fare in their respective seasons.

Q. Describe your job. What is your typical workweek like?

A. Right now the typical work week has a bit of a rhythm to it. Game days are the baseline, our center of the week. Stories lead up to them, and after they finish, we recap and break down the action and look forward to what’s next.

We have recurring features to keep our readers coming back from week to week, including film analysis, a rundown of how our divisional opponents fared that week, a podcast and plenty more. It’s a hectic schedule this time of year, as you might imagine.

Taking care of all the bases and media availability can stretch you thin some days, like Wednesday when Wes Welker made his return to practice and spoke at the podium while Seahawks PR had Richard Sherman available via conference call in the media workroom. Naturally, it also requires extremely good communication between departments since we’re also responsible not only for just stories, but also updating website information for other departments.

As creators of our written content, we also have the responsibility for what goes in our Gameday Magazine publication, which is handed out to fans at the stadium at home games. Our terrific graphics, marketing, community relations and public relations departments come together to contribute what goes in (statistics, coaches bios, community stories, magazine layout and design) and our digital media department adds in editorial content: the cover story and Q&As with a player and a coach. We also proofread and edit the magazine before it goes to print.

This all goes on during the season, by the way. Mismanaging your time can really put you in a tough spot, but sometimes you can do everything perfectly and still find yourself in a crunch to put things together.

All that said, a lot of things don’t necessarily work out in that rhythm. We spend bus rides from the stadium after an away game to a waiting red-eye flight transcribing post-game interviews and sharing them amongst ourselves via email, flash drive or Dropbox, and then we write our stories on the flight.

Also, we too can get caught off-guard by breaking news. You’ve got to be ready for anything sometimes.

It’s a very trying work schedule, but an extremely fun and rewarding one.

Q. You established yourself in sports journalism with a blog about the Charlotte Bobcats (now Hornets) of the NBA. How did that experience help you get your job with the Broncos?

A. Covering the Bobcats, though small-time, allowed me to cut my teeth and find my voice and stand out in a smaller market. I started covering the team while I was a sophomore at UNC, which meant I was learning about covering the team, writing in a consistent style and carving a groove as a unique writer covering the Bobcats, who had an extremely small media spotlight already.

Before I was the managing editor of the SB Nation blog, I had written for the Bobcats’ team blog after being named one of their winners in a contest, and months later after I had landed the SBN editor spot, I was the Bobcats’ digital media intern, which gave me plenty of experience and insight into the workings of the franchise from the team side.

The other major component is that running the blog gave me important experience in a number of ways. I began hiring writers to contribute to the site a few years ago, which got me more comfortable with addressing writers’ stylistic or grammatical issues head on. Communication is so key when talking through concerns about writing or in regards to things that cross departments.

In regards to time management, managing the blog was a crash course. I mentioned earlier that I started running the site when I was a sophomore, and it wasn’t an easy transition because I was by myself at that point. When you cover NBA basketball from the East Coast and the team makes a West Coast road trip where they spend a couple of nights with 10:30 p.m. tipoff times, sleep becomes what you sacrifice. I would spend mornings in class and nights watching basketball, leaving myself to unintentionally fall asleep during classes.

As time went by, I realized I needed more help and reached out to a couple of fellow young writers. In the couple of years since, I learned to set a schedule on a weekly basis, assigning stories, game previews and recaps to our writers. Still, even with better preparation, I had to take some things on the fly, writing breaking news stories during some classes or getting game previews our writers might have forgotten written and pushed out in the morning of my 9 a.m. media theory class.

With over three years of experience cultivating my writing and voice as one of the most prominent covering the Bobcats, I’d learned a solid all-around skill set. I knew social media; I could write straight news, a feature story or a column with knowledge of multiple perspectives; and I knew how to communicate up or down the ladder and how to manage my time.

Q. Sports franchises and leagues are no longer reliant on outside media for coverage. They can cover themselves. Do you see a difference between writing and editing for the Broncos official site vs. doing that at the Denver Post?

A. The distinction is harder to make these days, and we’re no exception.

We’re present at the same locker room availability sessions, press conferences and everything. We have a columnist in Andrew Mason who can write independent editorials and we have people who write straight features like profiles or normal stories.

Contrary to what you might think, it’s not all rose-colored glasses, though we do focus on who plays well for the most part. The Post, of course, is on a different level as an independent outlet compared to us, but we’re not all that different.

Q. Which team will go further this season: the Broncos or the Hornets?

A. Honestly, I’d say the Broncos. I’m extremely excited to see how the Hornets’ offseason moves come to fruition, but the Broncos went to the Super Bowl last year and the Hornets (Bobcats) got bounced in a first-round sweep.

With Denver already proving they can get to the deepest parts of the postseason and the Hornets still relatively unproven, I’ve got to go with the Broncos. But I’d be absolutely tickled pink if the Hornets somehow got to the Finals. I’d be there with bells on.

Q&A with Caroline McMillan Portillo of Bizwomen.com

Caroline McMillan Portillo is a reporter for the website Bizwomen.com. She previously worked at The Charlotte Observer in North Carolina. In this interview, conducted by email, Portillo discusses how reporting and editing work at Bizwomen.com, and how majoring in journalism prepared her for her career.

Q. What is Bizwomen about? What are the site’s objectives?

A. Bizwomen is a national news website about and for women in business. We cover everything from the women CEOs of Fortune 500 companies to leading entrepreneurs in the startup scene. Just this week, I had an exclusive interview with billionaire fashion designer Tory Burch, which was really cool.

The site was launched in April by American City Business Journals, a company that owns nearly 45 different business journals around the country (including the Triangle Business Journal). So we’re a young publication with a well-established brand behind us, which has been a nice extra boost.

Q. Describe your role there. What do you do on a typical workday?

A. Right now, the reporters on the Bizwomen team are each posting about three stories a day. The goal is to get to four.

I come into the office around 9 a.m. (ACBJ is headquartered in Charlotte), and usually leave around 7 p.m. When I come in, I immediately start combing other sites and Twitter for any big news in the world of women in business. This could be earnings for a Fortune 500 company with a female CEO, a tech giant’s diversity report or buzz around a high-profile controversy. These early-morning posts are quick hits, and it’s OK if they’re short. The goal is to make sure that we always have fresh content and are staying on top of the biggest stories.

Around 10:30 a.m., we have our morning editorial meeting, where we discuss what we’re working on, including what we expect to file that day and any longer pieces we’re working on. Right now, our official Bizwomen team is quite small — just me, another reporter and our editor — but we also have freelancers and can pull stories from all of the ACBJ publications around the country for our site. It’s similar to how newspapers can use wire copy from other papers in their chain.

That doesn’t mean we’ll never cover those stories ourselves. But if another market already has a story written on a topic we’re covering, we can post it and then figure out another way to extend the story in a different way, often getting multiple posts out of the same story line.

For example, when a bunch of girl-power ads came out around the same time, everyone was talking about how resonant they were. So I called Always and Pantene — the companies that produced the most popular videos — and did a piece on “The 7 things you didn’t know about those girl-power ads from Pantene and Always.” Then I spoke with two advertising and marketing experts (including one from UNC) to talk about the strategy behind the videos, which didn’t really have anything to do with the products the companies sell. With their insight, I did another post about whether these ads make good business sense.

Q. How does story editing work at the site?

A. The editing process works like this: I write the story, as well as a headline for the website, one for SEO (lots of keywords) and one for mobile devices. This is all done in our content management system.

I send it along to my editor, and she combs through the story and headlines. She’ll make changes and then will talk with me if she sees any holes in the story or wants to approach it from a different way. Depending on how much work it needs, we’ll either resolve it side by side, or I’ll work on it more and resubmit.

Q. What about headline writing?

A. Lately in our editorial meetings, we’ve been pitching stories by the headline. It was a little weird at first, but it makes for a more efficient meeting and helps us reporters focus a story before we sit down to write. Then we can massage the headline and story angle as a team.

I heard an editor at Quartz speak at the 2014 conference for the Society of American Business Editors and Writers, and he said they ask their reporters to think of their stories in terms of tweets. It took a little getting used to, but it’s actually a great strategy, particularly for a digital-only publication.

People won’t see our great content if we don’t have great headlines to draw them in. And on the Web, there’s a lot of competition.

Q. You graduated from the journalism school at UNC-Chapel Hill five years ago. What skills from your time there are most important in your work?

A. A few months after graduating, I was hired as a reporter with The Charlotte Observer — first as a community news reporter and then as the paper’s small business and entrepreneurship reporter. When you work for a daily newspaper, you’re expected to write a lot, to write fast and not to make mistakes while you’re doing it. The years I spent in the j-school were so critical in helping with all three.

In News Writing and News Editing, I learned how important it is to read and re-read your story, looking for typos, grammatical errors and misspelled proper nouns. Editors always have suggestions for how to make a sentence better, and they enjoy working with you on that. But if you make them spend time correcting dumb little mistakes, you could have a fantastic story and still lose some of their confidence in your ability.

I still remember getting a 50 on a news writing story because I spelled “Hillary Clinton” with only one “l.” I thought it was really harsh at the time, but now I get it. And if a mistake somehow gets past your editor and makes it on the paper or online, rest assured, you’ll get some vitriolic emails from readers. Then you’ll have to write an embarrassing correction that will be read by even more people.

The j-school also taught me about storytelling — how to ask for details that reward the reader for choosing your story — and why it’s good to spend time reading stories by writers you admire. Tommy Tomlinson, a former beloved Observer columnist and Pulitzer finalist, has been a great mentor for me, and I used to search through the archives just to read old stories and columns he’d written.

And I still think about little tricks of the trade Paul O’Connor taught me in my first reporting class, such as “draw a line down the middle of your notepad and write in columns.” (It’s faster because your hand doesn’t have to travel all the way across the page.)

Q. What skills have you had to learn since then?

A. The biggest thing I’ve had to learn since is how to really build a beat. When you first start, editors will feed you stories, but once you’ve been on the job for a little while, they expect you to find the majority of your stories. And you better not miss big news on your beat.

When I covered south Charlotte as a community news reporter, I was responsible for breaking news on school controversies, road projects, rezoning proposals and politics. So I really had to build sources, which is much harder than it sounds. It’s not like it was when newspapers were the only source of news people had, and thus the only place people sent tips to.

These days, you have to work hard to earn those story tips. People have to like you, they have to trust your abilities, and you have to keep in touch with sources regularly so they know that you care about them and not just the information they give you. That’s the only way you’ll get information first.

I used to get breakfast with some big figures in the south Charlotte community, including the city council representative, every single Wednesday around 7:30 a.m. So early. But so necessary.

When I became a business reporter, I had to get used to asking people about finances, which can be incredibly personal. How much did you lose when your business went under? How much did this investor give you to get started? What mistakes did you make that led you into bankruptcy? How much do you have to spend on x, y and z? It’s touchy stuff, but those details make your reporting stronger.

Read Caroline McMillan Portillo’s stories on the Bizwomen site and follow her on Twitter.