This blog will be quiet this week as I give and grade final exams. Then I head off to Minneapolis for the national conference of the American Copy Editors Society.
UNC-Chapel Hill students in my Advanced Editing course are contributors to The Editor’s Desk this semester. They are free to write about whatever they wish, provided that the topic fits the theme for this blog: “thoughts on editing for print and online media.”
This is the 13th (and last) of these guest posts. Stephanie Yera of Coral Springs, Fla., is a senior majoring in journalism and peace, war and defense with a minor in Mandarin. Her favorite extracurricular activities are traveling, meeting people, browsing grammar Web sites and eating Cuban food.
Whether it’s Southern California, northern France, Central America or New York’s Upper West Side, compass directions and geographical regions play an important role in setting the stage for a story. It is the copy editor’s responsibility to make sure locations are stated correctly and as informatively as possible. Copy editors must consider the effects different presentations of locations can have on the content of the stories they’re working on. Chicago’s South Side may be a part of the Midwest, but the two locations connote two very distinct images in a reader’s mind.
International news stories are particularly susceptible to a lack of specificity. Reports about the “East Asian” global market are published constantly, we hear people talk about “Africa” all the time and see stories about the “Middle East” in our newspapers every day. Without a greater emphasis on specificity, it’s difficult to make sense of it all. Copy editors should encourage reporters and one another to be more specific about story locations whenever possible.
Some stories, however, do not lend themselves to specificity, and in those instances, a copy editor should be very careful to avoid the tempting pitfalls of generalizations and blanket geopolitics — in particular, the still perpetuated notion of “Western” and “Eastern” worlds. Volumes of books and publications delve into the histories and studies of the significance of these terms, but even without the consideration of their layered meanings, it should be obvious to copy editors that they simply do not work as appropriate localities in news stories. The Western world is an ideological one, not a physical one, as is the “Muslim world” of the “East.”
Yet news stories continually refer to them as if they were concrete entities.
One news report published by The Associated Press about the 2009 U.N. racism conference reads, “Israel is not mentioned anywhere in the declaration prepared for the current meeting, which seeks to avoid any offense but has angered many in the Muslim world for its failure to point the finger directly at the Jewish state for its treatment of Palestinians.” What is meant by the Muslim world in this context? Is it necessarily referring to the Muslim populations of the Middle East? Are the Muslim-majority regions of Northern Africa and Southeast Asia included? Is it referring to all the Muslims of the world collectively in a manner akin to that of the Roman Catholic Church?
In reference to Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad’s statements at the conference, the report also reads, “The walkout came after Ahmadinejad accused Western nations of complicity in violence against Palestinians surrounding the foundation of Israel.” If Western nations are those found in the Western Hemisphere, are the nations of Central America and South America included, or does the Western world only extend as far south as the Florida Keys? Does the Western world encompass all of Europe or just Western Europe?
Another news report in The New York Times about controversial statements made by Hong Kong native actor Jackie Chan reads, “The Communist Party has long argued that the people of China are ill suited for Western-style democracy.” If there is such a thing as “Western-style democracy,” it’s hardly uniform throughout “the West.” Again, the blanket term of “Western” seems to be referring only to a few nations — if not just one nation — in the Western Hemisphere, so why not simply get more specific and eliminate ambiguity entirely?
Of course, the targeted readership of these stories can probably make educated assumptions about which particular nations comprise the Muslim and Western worlds, and many readers likely do not question the terms. But it should be a goal of copy editors to rid publications of such ambiguities and generalizations. An American readership will likely assume Western-style democracy refers to American democracy, so why not go with it? The report in The New York Times could have more accurately read, “The Communist Party has long argued that the people of China are ill-suited for democracy in the style of the U.S.”
Even if it seems obvious that the Western world refers to the nations of North America and Western Europe in most contexts, make it explicit for your readers anyway, and whenever possible, get more specific. A little research and probing are part of the job description, after all. Perhaps, in time, we will successfully wean ourselves from such easy generalizations and blanket geopolitics.
Copy editors at newspapers spend a great deal of time and energy on writing headlines. And for good reason — headlines attract attention, and some live on decades after they are written. This is the third in a series of posts on memorable headlines.
THE HEADLINE: The Filth and The Fury!
THE NEWSPAPER: Daily Mirror
THE STORY: In December 1976, members of the punk rock band the Sex Pistols were interviewed on a British television show. They insulted the host, Bill Grundy, and used foul language, leading offended viewers to complain. (Watch it here or read a transcript.)
ITS SIGNIFICANCE: As one of punk’s pioneering bands, the Sex Pistols thrived on shock and outrage — and publicity. This story’s prominent play on the front page and its headline played directly into that plan. The Daily Mirror furthered the band’s outrageous image, which was cultivated by manager Malcolm McLaren.
“The Filth and the Fury” was later used as the title of Sex Pistols documentary released in 2000. The Pistols used another newspaper headline, “Filthy Lucre,” as the name for their 1996 reunion tour. The cover of the inevitable live album from that tour consisted of a montage of newspaper headlines about the band, a fitting choice.
What is it about North Carolina and newspaper names that confuses the national media? This example, from this story at The Hill, mashes up the identities of the state’s two largest papers, a common error.
Sure, they both have “observer” in their names, and both are owned by McClatchy. A cynical person may blame the confusion on the merger of the papers’ sports, state government and features departments, a cost-cutting decision that’s led to layoffs.
Truth be told, it has become harder to tell the papers apart. Things were more interesting when they were competitors, journalistically if not financially.
Yet it seems unlikely that the likes of MSNBC, Politico and The Hill are following the machinations of McClatchy that closely. You have to be here to see it happen day to day.
So, here’s what the national media need to know: The Charlotte Observer is in Charlotte. The News & Observer is in Raleigh. They are separate cities and newspapers, at least for now. And Charlotte isn’t Charleston.
(Hat tip: RTB.)
- John Drescher of The News & Observer, on how the paper is more popular than the president — and how it will soon have ads on the front page.
- Connie Coyne of The Salt Lake Tribune, on reader complaints about biased headlines.
- David Denby of The New Yorker, on a possible business model for newspaper Web sites.
Students in my Advanced Editing course are contributors to The Editor’s Desk this semester. They are free to write about whatever they wish, provided that the topic fits the theme for this blog: “thoughts on editing for print and online media.”
This is the 12th of these guest posts. Elizabeth Templin is a second-year master’s student and Roy H. Park Fellow from Charlotte, N.C. She has focused on news writing, editing and multimedia during graduate school. She hopes that she will find ways to save journalism in a new job.
Newspapers have been in the news a lot lately. In case you haven’t heard, newspapers across the country are having a hard time staying financially afloat. Publishers are taking steps like laying off staff, creating online-only editions and outsourcing copy desks. With all these changes, it’s a good time to think about the future of copy editing and ask what role copy editors play in saving journalism.
Even though the future of journalism is uncertain, there are a few things copy editors can do to help out.
1. Copy editors can play a huge role in attracting readers to newspaper Web sites.
Newspapers have got to find ways to make Web sites generate more income, and one way to do that is by increasing readership, which is measured in page views or the number of pages visited by individual readers. Copy editors can help bring readers to Web sites by writing great headlines and story blurbs.
Copy editors writing headlines for the Web should go beyond writing the clear, catchy headlines that appear in print editions. Online headlines should be noun-heavy so that when the average reader is searching for information, such as “Obama puppy,” on a search engine like Google, they are directed to the newspaper’s Web site.
Copy editors should also make sure that headlines make sense out of context – away from the accompanying text, pictures and cutlines – since a reader might first encounter a lone headline on a search engine or RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed.
Once a headline has drawn a reader to the newspaper’s Web site, a well-written story blurb can help turn one page view into many more. Similar to drop heads, story blurbs are one or two sentences below the headline that give readers a sense of what the story is about. Good story blurbs are timely, highlight key information and provide details that pique reader interest.
2. Copy editors can look for ways to present content in alternative story forms.
In print editions, alternative story forms tend to be more engaging to readers than blocks of text. For Web sites, alternative story forms can take engagement to the next level by creating opportunities for reader interactivity, like clicking on a map, viewing a slideshow or taking a quiz.
3. Copy editors can allow reporters to break the rules of journalism in blogs.
More reporters are using blogs to instantly update news stories and communicate with readers. While making sure that a newspaper’s blogs are accurate and free of embarrassing errors is important, overlooking some journalism rules is OK.
4. Do what copy editors do best.
Copy editors play a big part in guarding newspapers’ credibility by ensuring that published content is accurate and error-free. In doing this, copy editors ensure that newspapers earn readers’ trust and offer readers something your average blogger may not: reliable, fact-checked content.
These are just a few ideas. What else can copy editors do to save journalism?
The national conference of the American Copy Editors Society is just two weeks away. We’ll meet in Minneapolis from April 30 to May 2.
If you haven’t registered yet, you still can for the bargain rate of $175. That gives you access to sessions on topics such as editing for online, using Twitter, going into teaching and writing better cutlines.
You also get to witness the editing smackdown between Bill Walsh of The Washington Post and Merrill Perlman, formerly of The New York Times. That alone will be worth the price of admission.
I hope to see you there.